Psychoanalysis Theory by Sigmund Freud Pdf

Psychoanalysis Theory by Sigmund Freud Pdf, Psychoanalytic theory is a psychological theory developed by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th century. It was Freud’s belief that our behavior and emotions are influenced by unconscious motives and desires, which we are often unaware of. Psychoanalytic theory was developed as a means to help individuals understand these unconscious motives and desires, in order to bring about personal growth and healing.

Psychoanalysis is a psychological theory developed by Sigmund Freud that focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in human behavior. This theory suggests that our behavior is influenced by unconscious desires, conflicts, and memories that we are not aware of.

Psychoanalysis aims to uncover these unconscious forces through techniques such as free association and dream analysis, and to help individuals better understand their own thoughts and behaviors. Freud’s ideas about the human psyche and the workings of the mind have had a significant impact on the field of psychology and continue to be studied and debated today.

It is actually a form of treatment that tries to help the patient experience catharsis, or healing, by allowing them to release repressed or suppressed emotions and memories (McLeod, 2014). Bringing what is at the unconscious or subconscious level up to consciousness is the aim of psychoanalysis, in other words.

Table of Contents

Psychoanalysis Theory Basic Insticts

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is based on the belief that human beings are driven by two basic biological instincts: the life instinct and the death instinct. The life instinct, or Eros, drives us to seek pleasure, love, and survival. The death instinct, or Thanatos, drives us toward aggression, destruction, and ultimately towards our own death.

Parts of Mind By Freud

According to Freud, the mind is divided into three parts: the conscious mind, the preconscious mind, and the unconscious mind. The conscious mind is what we are aware of at any given moment. The preconscious mind contains thoughts and feelings that we are not currently aware of, but can be easily accessed. The unconscious mind contains thoughts and feelings that are repressed and not easily accessible.

  • One of the central concepts of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is the idea of the id, ego, and superego. The id is part of the psyche that is driven by life and death instincts.
  • It is completely unconscious and operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification of our desires without concern for consequences.
  • The ego, on the other hand, operates on the reality principle and seeks to satisfy the id’s desires in a way that is socially acceptable and realistic. The superego is the moral and ethical component of our psyche, developed through socialization and internalization of societal norms and values.

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Development of The Psyche Occurs In Stages

According to Freud, the development of the psyche occurs in stages, beginning with the oral stage, followed by the anal stage, phallic stage, latent stage, and finally the genital stage. Each stage is characterized by a specific focus on a particular area of the body and a specific conflict that must be resolved before the individual can progress to the next stage.

  • Freud’s psychoanalytic theory also includes the concept of defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are psychological strategies used to protect the individual from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety, guilt, and shame. Examples of defense mechanisms include repression, denial, projection, displacement, and sublimation.
  • One of the most controversial aspects of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is the concept of the Oedipus complex. According to Freud, during the phallic stage, children develop an unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent and view the same-sex parent as a rival. This conflict is resolved through the identification of same-sex parents and the internalization of societal gender roles.

Critics of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory

Critics of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory argue that it is based on untestable and unfalsifiable hypotheses and that it relies too heavily on subjective interpretations of individuals’ experiences.

Additionally, Freud’s theories have been criticized for their emphasis on sexuality and their lack of attention to cultural and social factors.

Despite these criticisms, Freud’s psychoanalytic theory remains influential in the field of psychology, particularly in the areas of therapy and counseling. Psychoanalysis, which involves the exploration of an individual’s unconscious thoughts and emotions, remains a popular form of therapy for individuals struggling with mental health issues.


In conclusion, Psychoanalysis Theory by Sigmund Freud pdf was a groundbreaking and influential development in the field of psychology. While it has been subject to criticism and revision over the years, it remains an important foundation for understanding the unconscious motivations and desires that drive human behavior. Whether one subscribes to Freud’s theories or not, the impact of psychoanalytic theory on the field of psychology and on popular culture cannot be denied.

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